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益生菌產業亂象背后 企業狂熱 科學家謹慎

2019-10-25 20:43

沖劑、滴劑、膠囊、糖果餅干、乳制品、嬰兒輔食……各種劑型的益生菌保健品、食品、功能飲品等充斥線上線下不同渠道,讓人眼花繚亂,一股圍繞益生菌保健品、健康食品的消費時尚撲面而來。

益生菌并非新鮮事物,在食品、保健品領域的應用也有很長時間了,中國益生菌領域的專家通過十余年的研究,正在與國際接軌,一些研究成果也在食品工業領域實現了轉化,益生菌產業正在快速成長,同時也伴隨著良莠不齊的行業問題,尤其在母嬰食品、保健品領域,益生菌甚至一度被包裝成有病治病、無病強身的“萬能靈藥”。

但事實上,益生菌的種類、菌株多且復雜,學界對益生菌的研究和判斷十分謹慎,鼠李糖桿菌等知名益生菌菌株在特定疾病的臨床試驗結果與商家標榜的效果相差甚遠,對于益生菌實際功效和安全性的研究也存在諸多爭議和不確定。

圍繞益生菌到底能不能吃、什么人能吃益生菌、消費者如何甄別眾多的益生菌噱頭產品、益生菌產業如何實現健康發展等問題,記者做了多方調研和采訪。

野蠻生長與消費困惑

“寶寶出生7天時,黃疸指數高達20,醫生建議照藍光后降下來一些,半個多月再去復查的時候,仍然偏高,醫生開了藥和益生菌沖劑,我擔心孩子太小了腸胃受不了刺激,加上之前聽崔玉濤醫生講座時記得他說過盡量不要人為干預孩子腸道菌群的自然發育,就沒有給他吃,經過勤喂、曬太陽,孩子的黃疸最終消退了?!奔以谖錆h的媽媽鑫怡(化名)告訴第一財經記者,孩子現在兩歲多了,幾乎每次遇到感冒發燒之類的問題,醫生都會開益生菌,“身邊的很多媽媽長期給孩子吃益生菌,說這樣能增強抵抗力,母嬰店里的米粉、餅干、營養面、糖果之類的也有很多標注含有益生菌,有益腸道健康之類的功能,我很困惑,不知道到底該不該給孩子吃、怎么吃,問過幾個醫生,答復不盡相同,而且也沒給什么解釋?!宾吴f,身邊有很多媽媽都有跟她一樣的困惑,有的抵不住家人朋友的勸說,給孩子吃了益生菌,有的還在像她一樣地掙扎,不知道怎么選擇才是正確的。

不久前,記者參觀了第19屆中國孕嬰童展,在食品、保健品展區,發現參展商品里從嬰幼兒奶粉、輔食、糖果餅干、飲料到各種營養補充劑,益生菌概念普遍存在,甚至有號稱能預防、減少哺乳期婦女乳腺炎發病率的益生菌產品。不同的產品配料表中,對添加益生菌的說明也有差別,奶粉中普遍標注為“益生元”;滴劑、粉末狀沖劑則大都標注了添加的菌株名稱及菌數,嬰兒輔食、糖果零食及飲品中的益生菌標注則參差不齊。

記者隨機采訪了多名看展的家長和參展商,家長們普遍反映了益生菌應用十分廣泛的現象,對益生菌服用效果的評價不一,但一致的是,沒有一位家長認為益生菌有害健康。而參展商對添加了益生菌的嬰幼兒食品、保健品宣傳、推介力度也明顯更大,記者隨機采訪的數位參展商品牌,均表示日常攝入益生菌有助于腸道健康和增強抵抗力,其宣傳重點集中在雙歧桿菌、羅伊氏乳桿菌、保加利亞乳桿菌、鼠李糖桿菌等知名益生菌及活性添加量上。

隨后,記者走訪了聯華、家樂福等商超以及全家、良友等連鎖便利店,發現添加益生菌的產品集中在酸奶等乳制品、面包點心等食品品類,其配料表中對益生菌的標注也不同,有的只標注“益生菌”三個字,乳制品大都標注了益生菌的菌種,但少有標注菌數。一名全家便利店店員表示,這一年多酸奶制品的品牌、品類、口味明顯增加了,賣得挺不錯,乳酸菌夾心面包則是今年引進的,幾乎每天都可以賣光。

消費端的表現,往往直接投射在產業端。

睿歐數據顯示,2017年全球益生菌市場規模已達360億美元,全球益生菌產品中,保健食品與藥品占比8.6%,預計2020年全球益生菌膳食補充劑的市場價值將達到88億美元。中國益生菌2017年市場規模已達460億元人民幣,預計到2022年將接近千億元,年平均增速約14%,現處于快速增長期。

從細分行業看,益生菌食品占比更高,且以發酵乳制品為主,消費規模占比約78%。2017年,中國酸奶行業銷售額達到1192億元,同增18%,首次超過牛奶。且近年來中國酸奶行業毛利率在35%~40%左右,高端酸奶品類毛利率更高,高端份額的擴張進一步推升了利潤率。乳酸菌飲料的平均毛利率在30%左右,乳酸菌飲料龍頭養樂多的毛利率更是超過50%,2017~2018財年,養樂多實現營收4015.69億日元,截至2019年5月17日市值約1.15萬億日元,在細分市場影響力十分強勁。

利潤較高的則是保健品,合生元的益生菌業務毛利率在70%以上,澳大利亞益生菌膳食補充劑品牌Life Space的毛利率也在50%以上。此外,交大昂立、修正藥業、湯臣倍健等國內保健品、藥品企業,娃哈哈、君樂寶等食品企業也紛紛推出針對不同人群的益生菌產品;澳大利亞的Life Space、韓國的“媽咪愛”和美國的“康萃樂”等國外益生菌品牌也在中國母嬰市場得到了迅猛增長。

原料鏈條方面,益生菌原料巨頭丹麥公司科漢森截至2019年5月17日的市值達943億丹麥克朗,毛利率亦在50%以上,凈利率在18%~20%左右。另一原料巨頭杜邦公司則于2011年以334億丹麥克朗獲得92.2%的丹尼斯克控股權。這兩家公司,杜邦(占比約50%)和丹麥科漢森(占比約35%)壟斷了國內大部分益生菌原料市場。

申萬宏源證券認為,隨著益生菌行業迅速發展,在塑造細分龍頭上仍有較大市值空間,未來還可能出現更多大體量的公司。

過度宣傳包裝

珠?;圩麟娮由虅沼邢薰镜墓ぷ魅藛T向記者展示了一款號稱可以預防、減少哺乳期婦女乳腺炎發病率的“瑪西塔”固體益生菌沖劑,表示其中含有分離自健康母乳的益生菌CECT5716,每劑量添加了70億高活性菌,產地為新西蘭,該工作人員稱其在國外獲得大量哺乳期媽媽的關注,但記者注意到該品牌的另一款兒童益生菌產地標注為美國。

對此,記者咨詢了上海龍華醫院乳腺科醫生,得到的回復是,還沒有看到這類能預防乳腺炎的益生菌專業論文或報告,不知其是否真有實效,但防治乳腺炎目前來看與益生菌的常規保健功能并沒有多大關系。

在全球益生菌行業蓬勃發展的大背景下,中國食品科學技術學會益生菌分會的數據顯示,2016 年亞太地區益生菌消費規模占全球規模的份額進一步擴大,高達 47%,其次是歐洲 22%(西歐15%、東歐 7%)、北美 16.5%和中東 6.5%。中國的益生菌產業起步晚,開發從20世紀90年代開始,落后歐洲、日本等地區約 15~30 年,進入 21 世紀后,國內益生菌市場呈現奮起直追的態勢。

Infusion, drop, capsule, candy cookies, dairy products, baby food... Various dosage forms of probiotics health care products, food, functional drinks and so on fill different online and offline channels, so that people are dazzled, a wave of consumption fashion around probiotics health care products and health food.

Probiotics is not new, applied in the field of food, health care products also have for a long time, Chinese experts in the field of probiotics, through the study of more than ten years are in line with international standards, some research achievements in the field of food industry also realized the transformation, the probiotic industry is growing rapidly, but also with the good and bad are intermingled of industry, especially in the field of maternal and infant food, health care products, probiotics was packaged into sick sick, even without the "panacea" of physical disease.

But in fact, the species, strains of probiotics and more complex, academic research and judgment of probiotics is very cautious, rhamnose coli well-known probiotic strains in certain diseases such as the effect of clinical trials and the businessman as far, the actual efficacy and safety of probiotics research also has many disputes and uncertain.

Around the question of whether probiotics can be eaten, who can eat probiotics, how consumers identify numerous probiotics gimmick products, and how the probiotics industry can achieve healthy development, the reporter has done a variety of research and interviews.

Savage growth and consumption puzzle

7 days "the baby is born, jaundice index up to 20, the doctor suggested according to blue light down a bit, when more than half a month to review again, still on the high side, the doctor prescribed medicine granule and probiotics, I fear that the child is too small intestines and stomach can't stand stimulation, plus Cui Yutao doctor lecture before remember he said try not to human intervention children when the natural development of intestinal flora, and not to give him to eat, often feed, the sunshine, the child's jaundice subsided in the end." Home mother in wuhan xin yi (a pseudonym) told the first financial journalist, children are more than two years old now, almost every problem encountered a cold have a fever, the doctor will open probiotics, "many mothers for their children for a long time to eat around probiotics, says this can enhance resistance, maternal and child stores such as rice noodles, biscuits, nutrition, candy, also has a lot of labeling containing probiotics, beneficial intestinal health functions, such as I am very confused, don't know what should give the child to eat, how to eat, asked a few doctors, reply is not the same, but also did not give any explanation." Xin yi said that many mothers around her have the same confusion, some can not resist the family and friends to persuade their children to eat probiotics, some are still struggling like her, do not know how to choose the right.

Recently, the reporter visited the 19th China: children's show, in food, health care products exhibition, found in the exhibition goods from infant milk powder, assist food, candy, biscuit, drinks to various nutritional supplements, probiotics concept is widespread, and there were even claims to prevent and reduce the incidence of mastitis lactating women probiotic products. Different ingredients of the products have different instructions on adding probiotics. The milk powder is generally labeled as "probiotics". Drops and powder granules were mostly labeled with the name and number of added strains, while probiotics in infant supplements, candy snacks and drinks were uneven.

A random interview with a number of parents and exhibitors showed that probiotics were widely used, and their comments on the effects of probiotics were varied, but the consensus was that none of the parents thought probiotics were harmful to health. And exhibitors to add probiotics baby foods, health care products also significantly greater publicity and promotion efforts, press random interviews several exhibitors brand, said the daily intake of probiotics helps intestinal health and immune system, its publicity focused on Roy's lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and lactobacillus Bulgaria, rhamnose bacillus and other well-known probiotics and active content.

Subsequently, the reporter visited the lianhua, carrefour and other business and the family, friend and other convenience store chain, found that adding probiotic products focused on yogurt and other dairy products, bread, cookies and other food category, the ingredients in the annotations of probiotics is different also, some only marked "probiotic" three words, dairy products were marked the probiotic strains, but few tagging bacterium number. A family store clerk said that the brand, category and taste of yogurt products have increased significantly in the past year, and the sales are quite good. The lactobacillus sandwich bread was introduced this year and sold out almost every day.

The performance of the consumer side is often directly projected on the industrial side.

According to data from euromonitor, the global probiotic market reached 36 billion us dollars in 2017, and health food and drugs accounted for 8.6% of the global probiotic products. It is estimated that the global market value of probiotic dietary supplements will reach 8.8 billion us dollars in 2020. The market size of probiotics in China has reached 46 billion yuan in 2017, and is expected to reach nearly 100 billion yuan by 2022, with an average annual growth rate of about 14%. It is now in a period of rapid growth.

In terms of specific industries, probiotics accounted for the highest proportion, mainly fermented dairy products, and the consumption scale accounted for about 78%. In 2017, the sales volume of China's yogurt industry reached 119.2 billion yuan, an 18% increase, surpassing milk for the first time. Moreover, in recent years, the gross profit rate of Chinese yogurt industry is around 35% ~ 40%. The gross profit rate of high-end yogurt category is higher, and the expansion of high-end share further pushes up the profit rate. The average gross profit rate of lactic acid bacteria beverage is about 30%, and the gross profit rate of lactic acid bacteria beverage leader yangledo is more than 50%. In the fiscal year of 2017 ~ 2018, yangledo has realized the revenue of 401.569 billion yen. As of May 17, 2019, its market value is about 1.15 trillion yen, which has a very strong influence in the market segment.

Health products are the most profitable. The gross profit margin of biostime's probiotics business is above 70%, and the gross profit margin of Australian probiotic dietary supplement brand Life Space is also above 50%. In addition, domestic health products and pharmaceutical companies such as jiao tong university onlyli, xiedou pharmaceutical and tomson beijian, as well as food companies such as wahaha and junlebao, have also launched probiotics products targeted at different groups. Foreign probiotic brands such as Life Space in Australia, "mommy love" in South Korea and "consuela" in the United States have also seen rapid growth in China's maternal and infant market.

In terms of raw material chain, as of May 17, 2019, the market value of probiotics raw material giant khansen reaches DKR 94.3 billion, with gross profit rate above 50% and net interest rate around 18% ~ 20%. Dupont, another materials giant, took a 92.2% controlling stake in danisco in 2011 for dk33.4 billion. The two companies, dupont (about 50%) and Denmark's khansen (about 35%), monopolize most of the domestic market for probiotic ingredients.

Shenwan hongyuan securities believes that with the rapid development of the probiotics industry, there is still a large market value space in shaping the segmentation leader, and there may be more large companies in the future.

Overadvertised packaging

Zhuhai hui for electronic commerce co., LTD staff showed a reporter a so-called can prevent and reduce the incidence of mastitis lactating women "Marcy tower" granule solid probiotics, said containing probiotic CECT5716 isolated from healthy breast milk, each dose added 7 billion highly active bacteria, producing area for New Zealand, the staff said it get a lot of lactation mother abroad attention, but the reporter noticed that the brand of another child probiotics origin in the United States.

For this, the reporter consulted the mammary doctor of Shanghai longhua hospital, and the reply was that there was no professional paper or report on probiotics that could prevent mastitis. I don't know whether it has real effect, but the prevention and treatment of mastitis is not related to the routine health function of probiotics.

Against the background of the booming global probiotics industry, data from the probiotics branch of the Chinese society of food science and technology showed that the consumption scale of probiotics in the asia-pacific region further increased its share of the global scale in 2016, reaching 47%, followed by 22% in Europe (15% in Western Europe and 7% in eastern Europe), 16.5% in North America and 6.5% in the Middle East. China's probiotics industry started late, and its development began in the 1990s, about 15 to 30 years behind that of Europe, Japan and other regions. After entering the 21st century, the domestic probiotics market showed a trend of catching up.


彩宝